Russian money

Coins of the Russian Empire (beginning of the XVIII century - 1917)

Coins special editions  

The coins presented in the photos are in the collections of their owners and are not sold

Peter I Alexeyevich (1696-1725)
Peter I Alexeyevich (1696-1725)

Peter the great became Tsar in 1682 together with his older brother Ivan. But before 1689, the government was actually carried out by their sister Sophia, until she was banished to a monastery. Ivan did not take any part in politics, although until his death in 1696 formally remained the legitimate ruler.
After a long journey through Europe, Peter launched in Russia large-scale reforms, one of which was cash. Since 1700 entered into circulation copper coins Denga, Polushka and polupolushka, and then there was the copper penny. Initially, they were struck on the foot 20 roubles from a pood. Soon start to mint large silver coins are round, denomination: dime (=10 cents), the ruble, poltina and polupoltinnik. Then limited minted silver penny "ten money" the same value. Penny, the scale continued to be made until 1718, all the larger denominations were multiples of her weight.
A new type of money was introduced gradually, to avoid popular unrest. By the end of the Northern war in 1721, Peter declared himself Emperor, giving rise to a new era. In 1718 the last time the date is indicated in the form of letters, and in 1723 appear copper 5 cents (on foot 40 rubles of pounds), who completed a monetary reform. Under Peter I for the first time in the appeal do the gold coins called ducats. Their rate was floating (about 2 rubles), but the weight has long remained the standard - of 3.47 g. Also produced double nickels.
In this section you will find information about the coins, minted after the beginning of monetary reform. Pre-reform presented here.
Peter the great became Tsar in 1682 together with his older brother Ivan. But before 1689, the government was actually carried out by their sister Sophia, until she was banished to a monastery. Ivan did not take any part in politics, although until his de... (read more)


Catherine I Alekseevna (1725-1727)
Catherine I Alekseevna (1725-1727)

After the death of Peter I in 1725, the throne ascends his second wife, Catherine, since no heir has not lived up to that time. There are many versions about the origin of Catherine (Christianity was Martha), but we know that she had Baltic roots. Rules only two years, the authorities mostly belonged to A. D. Menshikov and the Supreme Privy Council.
Copper coins during the reign of Catherine I was minted only 5 cents were silver grivna (10 kopecks), poltina and ruble.
After the death of Peter I in 1725, the throne ascends his second wife, Catherine, since no heir has not lived up to that time. There are many versions about the origin of Catherine (Christianity was Martha), but we know that she had Baltic roots. Rules o... (read more)


A. Peter II (1727-1730)
A. Peter II (1727-1730)

Peter ascended to the throne at 11 years of age. He was the grandson of Peter the great (the son of Alexei Petrovich) and the son of a German Princess. He was the last direct representative of the Romanov dynasty in the male line. As for Catherine I, the power was in the hands of Menshikov, and then the princes Dolgoruky. In 1728 the capital was moved again to Moscow, but in 1730 returned to St Petersburg.
Under Peter II minted the same coin that when Catherine (5 cents, the ruble, poltina and dime), but partially also produced a gold Ducat.
Peter ascended to the throne at 11 years of age. He was the grandson of Peter the great (the son of Alexei Petrovich) and the son of a German Princess. He was the last direct representative of the Romanov dynasty in the male line. As for Catherine I, the ... (read more)


Anna Ioannovna (1730-1740)
Anna Ioannovna (1730-1740)

Peter II lived only until 14 years after he ascended the throne Anna Ioannovna, daughter of Ivan V, brother of Peter the Great. Since 1710 lived in Courland with her husband, but in 1730 was invited as a monarch under the dominion of the Supreme Council, it was the initiative of Prince Golitsyn. Anna immediately dissolved the Council and became autocratic Empress. It is believed that during its 10-year rule a significant part of the power belonged Biron, but the evidence for this is still there.
Anna Ivanovna managed to make a few reforms, which is a continuation of the interrupted policy of Peter the great. Coin production greatly aktiviziruyutsya copper minted mite and Deng reduced 4 times the bottom (10 rubles of pounds), silver rouble, poltina, polupoltina and a dime. Of gold was produced only gold coins.
Peter II lived only until 14 years after he ascended the throne Anna Ioannovna, daughter of Ivan V, brother of Peter the Great. Since 1710 lived in Courland with her husband, but in 1730 was invited as a monarch under the dominion of the Supreme Council, ... (read more)


Ivan VI (III) Antonovich (1740-1741)
Ivan VI (III) Antonovich (1740-1741)

In 1740, under the will of Anna Ioannovna formally Emperor becomes two month old Ivan, the great-grandson of Ivan V. Government at this time was ruled by Biron first and then the mother of Ivan VI, Anna Leopoldovna. In 1741, the future Empress Elizaveta Ivan sent to prison, where he spent 23 years, until he was killed.
In this short period of time was conducted in an attempt to improve the production of coins with the portrait of Ivan VI (where his age was a bit high). Now these coins are very rare.
Some catalogs and reference books Ivan VI, called Ivan III in the terminology of pre-revolutionary times, the same designation on the silver coins of his reign.
In 1740, under the will of Anna Ioannovna formally Emperor becomes two month old Ivan, the great-grandson of Ivan V. Government at this time was ruled by Biron first and then the mother of Ivan VI, Anna Leopoldovna. In 1741, the future Empress Elizaveta I... (read more)


Elizaveta Petrovna (1741-1761)
Elizaveta Petrovna (1741-1761)

From 1730, the ruling elite always felt the pressure from the heirs of Peter the Great. Taking advantage of the decline in the authority of Anna Leopoldovna, who reigned over the infant Ivan VI, the supporters of Elizabeth Petrovna (daughter of Peter the great) organized a Palace coup. Elizabeth I continued his father's policies, has made significant reforms in education and theatrical arts, but at the same time became famous very lush festivities and balls. Her wardrobe consisted of several thousand dresses.
1757 copper coin stop is increased to 16 cents from pounds and begin to mint coins, almost unchanged until 1796. Then there are several types of test coins, it is now considered rarities. Several samples produced in gold coinage. To the Ducat and double Ducat added ruble, 2 rubles, 20 rubles, starts chasing Imperial (10 rubles) and proimperial (5 rubles).
From 1730, the ruling elite always felt the pressure from the heirs of Peter the Great. Taking advantage of the decline in the authority of Anna Leopoldovna, who reigned over the infant Ivan VI, the supporters of Elizabeth Petrovna (daughter of Peter the ... (read more)


Peter III Fedorovich (1761-1762)
Peter III Fedorovich (1761-1762)

After the death of Elizabeth was a short reign of Peter III (initially bore the name of Karl), grandson Peter (son of his daughter Anna). He was born and lived in Sweden and were first raised as the heir to the Swedish throne. In 1742 Elizabeth transported him to Russia, where three years later he married Catherine, the future Empress. Peter rules in just 186 days, but during that time managed to carry out several important reforms.
In silver and gold when Peter III had a limited edition minted several denominations of coins with the portrait of the Emperor. The Emperor also carried out a massive peretachenko copper coins of the old sample to the new higher denominations of 2 times, the project was conceived as early as 1760.
After the death of Elizabeth was a short reign of Peter III (initially bore the name of Karl), grandson Peter (son of his daughter Anna). He was born and lived in Sweden and were first raised as the heir to the Swedish throne. In 1742 Elizabeth transporte... (read more)


Ekaterina II Alexeevna (1762-1796)
Ekaterina II Alexeevna (1762-1796)

In the summer of 1762 coup d'etat happened, and then ascended the throne the wife of the former Emperor - Catherine. Peter III was soon killed. Catherine was descended from a German family and had ancestors of the Romanov dynasty. She ruled for 34 years, this period is considered the "Golden age" of the Russian Empire. For great achievements in domestic and foreign policy subsequently received the title of great. It is the most significant stratification of society, the nobles get more privileges. Achieved great success in the cultural development of the country, from Europe brought the priceless masterpieces of painting, museums were created.
Copper coins continued to mint is still the foot print of sample 1757, but with the monogram of Catherine II. Only in 1796 produced the raising of the foot 2 times and are new types of copper coins, which was never firmly established in the monetary circulation. From 1763 to 1781 minted much lighter "Siberian coin" from the copper mines of Kolyvan, which contained a mixture of gold and silver. For the first time in the history of minted silver coins with denominations of 20 and 15 cents. Also known trial silver 5 cents and trial "Pugachev" ruble.
In the summer of 1762 coup d'etat happened, and then ascended the throne the wife of the former Emperor - Catherine. Peter III was soon killed. Catherine was descended from a German family and had ancestors of the Romanov dynasty. She ruled for 34 years, ... (read more)


Pavel I Petrovich (1796-1801)
Pavel I Petrovich (1796-1801)

The son of Catherine II and Peter III ascended the throne at 41 years of age. He spent a large number of reforms that weakened the position of the nobility and had improved the situation of peasants. In order to avoid the revolution, he banned the import of foreign literature and study abroad. Actively led the fight against the emerging French Empire, changed the order of succession to the throne (after his power was passed from father to son). In 1798 was proclaimed master of the Maltese order, and then began a complicated relationship with the British (Malta was part of its composition). It is believed that the representatives of British organized the murder of Paul in 1801.
In the beginning of the reign of Paul I was pricecanada copper coins of the new model, introduced by Catherine II. They are exactly the same coins sample 1763 and had the monogram of Catherine II. This was done in connection with the return of the old stops (16 roubles from a pood). 1797 minted coins with the monogram of Paul I denomination from penny to 2 cents. Silver 5 cents repeat the design, while large coins (a rouble, poltina and polupoltinnik) placed the monogram of the four letters "P" on the front side and inscription on the reverse (1798 their weight was lowered). Also known trial silver efimok. From gold coins minted 5 roubles gold piece, which was then cancelled.
The son of Catherine II and Peter III ascended the throne at 41 years of age. He spent a large number of reforms that weakened the position of the nobility and had improved the situation of peasants. In order to avoid the revolution, he banned the import ... (read more)


Alexander I Pavlovich (1801-1825)
Alexander I Pavlovich (1801-1825)

In the beginning of his reign Alexander I renounced the inheritance of the order of Malta, thus the relationship with England. When it happened a few important wars of the nineteenth century, as well as the victory in the Patriotic war of 1812. Was annexed Finland, Bessarabia, Eastern Poland and Georgia. Also conducted several internal reforms had a significant impact on the political structure of the country. From 1810-s growing opposition movement that in 1825 led to the revolt of the Decembrists - the first revolution against the autocracy.
Since 1802 changed the design of copper coins, and from 1810 is a significant reduction in their weight. The newly introduced copper 5 cents, but in parallel and produced a silver coin. The rest of the values were only changed design. Also lost gold coins which gave way to coins of 5 and 10 rubles, popularly known as the Imperials and proimperial.
In the beginning of his reign Alexander I renounced the inheritance of the order of Malta, thus the relationship with England. When it happened a few important wars of the nineteenth century, as well as the victory in the Patriotic war of 1812. Was annexe... (read more)


Nicholas I Pavlovich (1825-1855)
Nicholas I Pavlovich (1825-1855)

The heir was supposed to be the older brother of Alexander I, Constantine, who in 1820 announced his intention to abdicate in favor of his younger brother Nicholas. Nicholas learned about it only a few days after the death of his brother, having already to swear allegiance to Constantine. In this period of interregnum there have been several instances of trial ended with the portrait of Constantine, which is now considered a numismatic rarity.
Taking advantage of the confusion of the interregnum, the Decembrists organized a rebellion against autocracy, but the revolution was the same day suppressed. Under Nicholas I continued the war with Persia and Turkey, the Crimean war began. The first railway in Russia, and in 1851 built the road from St. Petersburg to Moscow.
From 1839 to 1843, under the leadership of E. F. Kankrin was held a currency reform, in which the basic unit was the silver rouble, the rest of the coins and paper money had to be secondary means of payment. For a gradual transition to the new system, until 1848 the denomination copper coins were marked in silver, and the foot was lowered to 16 rubles to the pood. Then weight is reduced in 3 times and change begin to have only a nominal value.
The heir was supposed to be the older brother of Alexander I, Constantine, who in 1820 announced his intention to abdicate in favor of his younger brother Nicholas. Nicholas learned about it only a few days after the death of his brother, having already t... (read more)


Alexander II Nikolaevich (1855-1881)
Alexander II Nikolaevich (1855-1881)

The reign of Alexander II is associated with important reforms significantly changed the internal situation in the country. In 1861 serfdom was abolished, and then conducted a financial reform, laid the foundations of the capitalist economy. Eliminated the military settlements. Uprisings in different regions of the country led to more elaborate organization of the political unit. At the end of the reign were prepared reform, limiting the autocracy. All of this brought the Emperor the title of "Liberator".
In foreign policy, we have achieved major successes: joined Central Asia and Turkestan, Northern Caucasus, Transbaikalia, the far East, Bessarabia, a part of Georgia. Completed the Crimean war. In the late 1870s was the last Russo-Turkish war, after which finally managed to make peace with the Ottoman Empire. In 1867, due to the economic unprofitability Alaska was sold to the United States.
Since 1867, it once again lowers the weight of the copper coins, which this time minted unchanged for 50 years until the Revolution (changed only the monogram). From 1859 changed the design of the silver coins, which also hardly will change in the future. You receive the gold coin in denomination of 3 rubles.
The reign of Alexander II is associated with important reforms significantly changed the internal situation in the country. In 1861 serfdom was abolished, and then conducted a financial reform, laid the foundations of the capitalist economy. Eliminated th... (read more)


Alexander III Alexandrovich (1881-1894)
Alexander III Alexandrovich (1881-1894)

After the assassination of Alexander II ascended to the throne his son Alexander III. When it Russification newly annexed territories. New reforms, called the "counter-reforms", which was returned all power to the Emperor, but at the same time to improve the lives of peasants. In spite of this, hold back the excitement of the masses became increasingly difficult, in different parts of the Empire arose the revolutionary movement. In 1887 an attempt on the Emperor, one of which organizers was the brother of Lenin. In foreign policy, a period of calm ceased military alliances against other countries, Russia has strengthened its prestige.
Again began minting gold coins in denomination of 10 roubles, while continuing to produce 3 and 5 rubles. In the rest of the values have changed only a monogram. In 1882 there was an attempt to replace copper coins copper-Nickel much less weight, but the idea was left until better times.
After the assassination of Alexander II ascended to the throne his son Alexander III. When it Russification newly annexed territories. New reforms, called the "counter-reforms", which was returned all power to the Emperor, but at the same time to improve ... (read more)


Nicholas II Alexandrovich (1894-1917)
Nicholas II Alexandrovich (1894-1917)

The reign of Nicholas II went down in history as a very restless period. Originated during the reign of Alexander III the revolutionary movement gained strength, has not yet led to the revolution of 1905. This time the rebellion had been suppressed. In order to avoid new unrest made several reforms regarding the freedom of religion, freedom of speech and institutions of the State Duma. But all this only helped to strengthen people's movements. In 1914 a new interstate unions led to Russia's entry into the First World war. The weakening of the economy and government took advantage of the opposition, and in early 1917, the February revolution in which Nicholas II abdicated. In March, came to power a Provisional government. A year and a half in July 1918 the Tsar was executed at Yekaterinburg with his family.
In the coinage this time also saw many changes. In 1895-1898 years of monetary reform under the guidance of Witte, in which the basis of monetary circulation becomes gold ruble (before that was considered the basic silver). The weight of gold coins reduced in half. In 1897, the last minted coins of the old weight but with high values (15 and 7.5 rubles). In 1915-1916 due to the difficult economic situation was planned to be a lightweight copper-Nickel coins from 3 to 25 cents, lower denominations were to remain copper, but one and a half times easier. Even considered the question of the introduction of a steel money. All of the developed options were trial and are now highly prized among collectors.
The reign of Nicholas II went down in history as a very restless period. Originated during the reign of Alexander III the revolutionary movement gained strength, has not yet led to the revolution of 1905. This time the rebellion had been suppressed. In or... (read more)


Coins special editions


Anniversary and gift coins
Anniversary and gift coins

The minting of commemorative coins started during the reign of Catherine II. The first was gold rubles for the participants of the Palace revolution, they had the same image size as the normal silver, but a much greater weight. After a year in honor of the development of the redistribution of the guns in the coin in 1757 produced a copper coin with the date "1757", but with the monogram of Catherine II.
From the 1830s, begins regular minting of commemorative rubles in honor of important events of the Empire. In the late XIX - early XX centuries limited edition gold coins have been issued superior quality non-standard denominations, which were donative, that is, a gift for high-ranking officials, in turn they didn't arrive.
The most famous commemorative coins of the Empire can be considered a silver ruble in honor of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, and "Gangut ruble", released on the 200th anniversary of the battle of Gangut.
The minting of commemorative coins started during the reign of Catherine II. The first was gold rubles for the participants of the Palace revolution, they had the same image size as the normal silver, but a much greater weight. After a year in honor of th... (read more)


Coins regional issues
Coins regional issues

In the Russian Empire were periodically issued special coins for the newly annexed territories, have not yet mastered the Russian language and the Russian currency, and also for the Russian army, stationed abroad. They had the usual areas of the face value, weight, often, the inscriptions in the local language. At the same time on most present coat of arms of Russia. The most common among collectors are coins of Finland are minted from 1864 to 1917. For convenience they are grouped in a separate section.
Coins of the last Crimean Khan was partly used after the annexation of Crimea, therefore, is also placed here, although the Russian are not.
In the Russian Empire were periodically issued special coins for the newly annexed territories, have not yet mastered the Russian language and the Russian currency, and also for the Russian army, stationed abroad. They had the usual areas of the face valu... (read more)


Coins Russian Finland
Coins Russian Finland

5 September 1809 peace Treaty with Sweden, Finland was ceded to Russia with partial preservation of Swedish law. The end of the century the Finnish language had the status of an additional state, but then began the Russification of the population, which led to the struggle for independence, which Finland had made in 1917.
Since 1864 on this site in the appeal included the Russian-Finnish coins familiar to Finns face value expressed in pennies and stamps. All labels were done in Finnish. 1 mark at first was equal to 1/4 of the ruble and consisted of 100 pence. From 1885 the weight and fineness of the ruble has changed, so the ratio is preserved only in gold coins, and gold since 1898 is already equal to 0.375 ruble.
Until today got a huge amount of Russian-Finnish coins, most of the instances is of little value.
5 September 1809 peace Treaty with Sweden, Finland was ceded to Russia with partial preservation of Swedish law. The end of the century the Finnish language had the status of an additional state, but then began the Russification of the population, which l... (read more)


Special editions
Special editions

In 1725 was conducted in an attempt to start production of coins of large denomination from copper by the foot available to reduce the cost of silver. The result is a heavy coin-card with denominations from 5 cents to the ruble. They were extremely awkward to handle, so the release build failed. In 1771, in the town of Sestroretsk near St. Petersburg once again planned to organize production of copper rubles, but the cylindrical shape. At this time the idea was abandoned due to the complexity of production. Stamp from Sestroretsk ruble was also used in the minting of silver "Pugachev" ruble.
In 1825, during the first days after the death of Alexander I began the minting of silver rubles, with the portrait of Constantine, which was supposed to take the throne. But Constantine abdicated in favor of his brother Nicholas, managed to produce only 8-9 coins from a non-existent Emperor.
Under Nicholas I was issued a platinum coin of 3, 6 and 12 rubles from metal mined in the rich deposits of the Urals. Their production was discontinued in 1845, for various reasons.
During the reign of Nicholas II on the eve of the monetary reform had come up with a new name of gold coins, to safely organise the decrease of their weight in half. So there was a "Rus" was not included in treatment and remaining test instances.
In the late nineteenth century as a means of payment used are also refining the bullion. Silver, highlighted during the melting of gold nuggets in such bullion is returned to the prospectors.
In 1725 was conducted in an attempt to start production of coins of large denomination from copper by the foot available to reduce the cost of silver. The result is a heavy coin-card with denominations from 5 cents to the ruble. They were extremely awkwar... (read more)


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